The history of foie gras, already at the time of the Pharaohs... it was a 'liver '...
The history of this delicious dish is the "foie gras"... indeed all starts, at the time of the Pharaohs. As evidenced by Egyptian frescoes, of which a copy is on display at the Louvre Museum, the art of force-feeding was mastered without knowing if it was to use the liver or to produce more good meat. This practice will then forward to the Greeks and Romans. There, the geese (not necessarily those of the Capitol) are force-fed with figs.
Homer, Horace and others evoke these delicious livers which then adorn the banquet tables.
More amazing is then the semantic victory of which is not yet the foie gras. While there is a word "jecur" to designate the body in humans, the liver was "fīcātum"., perfect translation of the Greek word "sukoton., which means figs. The Word enters customs and later became "figodo"., 'feie' then 'liver' while the recipe travels Europe. However until the importation of maize reported to America by Christophe Colomb that practice develops.
The Strasbourg invention of Jean-Pierre Clause
It is towards the end of the 18th century the history of foie gras is rooted definitively in Alsace. Gourmet and socialite, the Marshal de Contades, Governor of Alsace love to receive visitors and blow them away. Dinners are then run and the young cook just recruit is not there for nothing. One day, He throws a challenge : create a single dish, Alliance of the best products and the art of cooking here "à la française"..
Jean-Paul Clause challenge, end 1778. He makes a small barrel-shaped crust, fills of foie gras and a Bacon and veal farce, finely minced. He leaves Cook that quietly. Alchemy is exquisite, at the table of the Marshal, It is in Ecstasy. Jean-Anthelme Brillat - Savarin, Epicurean and gastronome later described this "Gibraltar of Foie Gras that.", at the time of its appearance, fit stop conversations by the fullness of the hearts... and succeed in turn on all the faces the fire of desire, the ecstasy of the enjoyment, perfect the rest of the bliss... ».
The wonder is sent to Louis XVI, who discovers this 'block of foie gras to the Contades., before thanking his friend of a land in Picardy and his Cook of twenty Pistoles as a reward.
The tribe of the pastry chefs
Jean-Pierre Clause will take advantage of this windfall to leave, shortly after, the service of the Marshal de Contades. Freshly held a certificate of mastery, He joined the 'tribe of the bakers' and set up his own. The production and sale of foie gras to democratize. We just far to the shop of the street of the Chickadee to taste the "block of foie gras of Strasbourg..
It's only later that a companion of Clause, Nicolas-François Dean took over by creating : 'the block of foie gras of Strasbourg to the truffles of the Perigord'. With humor, He chose a motto for his shop "Moult faith.", "Much hope.". When one knows the success of this dish, first in the Royal and Imperial tables, then to ours, It is understandable that there a good reason to have faith in the liver.
Madagascar, foie gras has the coast
Traditions then perpetuated in the France to its colonies and Madagascar was no exception. At 50 km from the capital Antananarivo, on the national 7, a small town – Behenjy -, specializes in the production of foie gras and the force-feeding of ducks. Momentum there is more than 40 years, the production of foie gras is now live close to 70% inhabitants.
In the holiday season, in this small rural town of some 23 000 souls, There are more ducks than people. At Behenjy, the origin of foie gras is a bit murky. Several producers claim fatherhood, started by Bruno Andrianaivo, the owner of the brands "Corner of liver fat".
« It's a family story. My mother, There are 40 years, has initiated the production of foie gras. Growing up, I found that it was a profitable industry. I brought some technical improvements to the production. And currently, These are kids who have taken over. It pays a lot, and even the population has benefited from : restaurants, in the small taverns, It's a deal that works well. »
Foie gras, a business profitable but just as secretive as its revenue. None of the big four companies do not raise ducks but collect directly the livers from a cooperative of small farmers in Behenjy.
Sitting on a stool in the courtyard of a House, Fanomezantso, 18 years, gave a, handmade, the 15 the family ducks. « This work, It's our livelihood. Yes, It is profitable ! Our fees, our food, everything is paid from revenues of foie gras. We buy live ducks, We kill them after 21 days of force-feeding and sold liver 3,5 €, and the carcass € 2.30 to collectors. In my family, everyone makes a good life through the duck. »
The liver die fat knows two peaks in production in the year : in June, for the national day and at Christmas.
A recent culture
This culture of foie gras is recent. She did not even exist five years ago at the middle classes. More accessible, Thanks to small retailers on roadsides and the many outlets of the capital, the foie gras of duck remains a luxury product, unaffordable for many Malagasy papillae.